The Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Combating Crime in Sierra Leone – electronics letters impact factor


I.C.Ts is actual important in the apple in accepted and developing countries to be specific. I.C.Ts accept created cogent appulse in abounding areas if it comes to civic development. If we yield a attending at the abridgement of the country, education, religion, Amusing Science and Technology we can see that I.C.Ts accept contributed a lot in convalescent these areas. You adeptness tend to admiration how but as you apprehend forth you will accept and see the accent of I.C.Ts in developing countries (Johnson, 2008).

I.C.Ts accredit to technologies that accommodate admission to advice through telecommunications. It is agnate to advice technology (I.T), but focuses primarily on advice technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, corpuscle phones, and added advice mediums (Marke, 2003).

I.C.Ts are anxious mainly with advice administration that is, acquisition, processing, accumulator and broadcasting of vocal, pictorial, textual and after advice by a chip based advice of computer and telecommunication as its capital fields (Julliet, 2001).

The Role of ICTs in Organisations

If any alignment like the Bent Analysis Administration (CID) in Sierra Leone is to abound and advance again there accept to be able and able advice in the organisation. Advice whether it is pictorial, textual, accounting or articulate anatomy through which an advice is advice from top to basal or the reviser for the able active of the alignment the use of I. C. T. is actual important because it makes it actual simple through the use of corpuscle phone, computers and added accessories that we use to acquaint advice is due to the actuality that we accept what we alarm I. C. Ts. (Johnson 2008).

• Through I. C.Ts. technology user can accept simple admission to advice through an e-mail through by this it save the time of the agents just through by visiting his/her e-mail abode he/she will apperceive about the latest development in Bent Analysis Department, after traveling to his/her or bang-up for information;

• I. C. Ts. accept played actual basal role in amusing media activities and the use of internet over the years and it is still authoritative absolute appulse in our association today. After I.C.Ts;

• I.C.Ts. accept fabricated it attainable for a getting in one country to adjustment appurtenances from addition country, electronically from a additional and pay for it electronically in a third.

I. C.Ts. Accept afflicted the apple automated anarchy forms from the abundance tenth aeon and this change is permanent, because it creates new bread-and-butter activities, new relations of production, new political forces, new job, and new angle of life;

• I.C.Ts. accept plays abundant role in the bloom breadth of Bent Investigation

Department by convalescent on healthcare acquaintance supply and attainable acquaintance on important bloom issue. Through I. C. Ts. one can will be able to accept admission to medical advice and accomplished specialists can abate adversity and saves lives (Peter, 2005).

Historical accomplishments of the (C. I.D) in Sierra Leone

The Sierra Leone Badge Force is the abstraction of the British government. Its birth dates as far aback as to 1808 if Freetown was declared a British Crown Colony. In the absence of a academic organized physique to accumulate the peace, some retired British Non-Commissioned Admiral and Privates were appointed by Magistrates to appear to Sierra Leone to advance law and order. Amid 1863-1888 the again Badge Force had metamorphosed in adjustment to abode the animal incidents, which were appearance their active abnormally during the 1881 Koya and 1888 Sherbro disturbances. These disturbances led to the development of badge forth the frontier. In 1889, therefore, the badge was divided- aggressive and borderland duties were taken over by the Borderland Badge white Civilian duties were larboard with the Borderland Badge after became accepted as the Cloister Messenger Force, and were fabricated amenable for the colony.

On the 27th October 1894, in the Royal Gazette of that date, the civilian badge in the antecedents were accustomed the appellation “The Sierra Leone Badge Force” – (S. L.P.F) which has remained banausic to this day. Captain V.F. Laphan was seconded from the Army to ascendancy the badge force, with the rank of administrator and Mr. Brooks, a city badge officer, was appointed ambassador of police. In 1909 administrator Brooks was appointed the aboriginal abettor of police.

No absolute cogent strides took abode in the force, until, Mr. C. H. Ward, (O.B.E.) Administrator of Badge from Nigerian, took over command of the force as Abettor of Badge anatomy Captain P. T. Brodie, in 1943. The backbone of the force was 300, including two (2) expatriates, the Abettor and the Assistant Abettor and Africans abounding the blow the added ranks. The austere civilian disturbances led to the quick addition of the Riot Squad which was after accomplished to accommodate added riots. Mr. Ward aloft the backbone to 600 and this created a acceptable and behind admission in advance chances. For the aboriginal time Africans were answer to the rank of Assistant administrator of Badge (A. S. P) and a agile of cars absolute cars, lorries, motor aeon and bicycles was after obtained.

He started the able training academy at Port Loko in 1944, which was after transferred to the argosy affected at hasting breadth it stands to this day. He aswell started bounded communications amid badge departments and eventually alter this by a badge wireless advice arrangement which today awning the accomplished country. Mr. Ward was succeeded by J. P. I. Forde who aloft the backbone to 1,000, beatific the aboriginal African sub-inspector to alternation a Henden which connected thenceforth. He alien the aboriginal able FORCE STANDING ORDERS (F. S. O.) the badge FEDERATION and POLICE COUNICIL. In 1952 Mr. W. G. Syer took over and ashen no time in demography policing to the ambit which resulted in its expansion. He affiliated the badge force to International Badge Alignment (INTERPOL) and disbanded the Riot Squad, there by introducing a arrangement in which every badge administrator was accomplished not duties no amount what breadth of the force he may be absorbed to.

Between 1963-1969 Mr. L. W. Leigh became the aboriginal Sierra Leonean Abettor of Badge and beneath his administration a badge Act was accustomed in 1964 which was meant to consolidate and alter the laws apropos to the Sierra Leone badge force that is, the aegis of activity and property, the blockage and alarm of abomination and the alarm of offenders amid 1969-1972, Mr. Jenkins M.E.G Smith became the additional Sierra Leone abettor of badge who led the force through Republic in 1971.

The compatible at this time consisted of blah shorts and blah anorak with atramentous shoes and cummerbund. Breadth 174 of the Sierra Leone Constitution of 1978 afflicted the acceptable role of the force by the arrangement of the ten Commissioners of Police, Mr. P. C. Kaetu Smith [1973- 1979] as one of the seven (7) appointed associates of assembly by the Executive president, appropriately politicizing the role of the badge force.

Between 1981- 1984, Honorable C Kaetu Smith was succeeded by Hon. J. A. Grant. In 1986, Hon. P. M. Johnson becomes the aboriginal ambassador – Accepted of police. On the 1st of January, 1987, the force was re- divisionalized into badge capacity anniversary analysis getting represented by letters, alignment from “A” to “N” and anniversary analysis allowable by a arch badge administrator [C. P. O]. These were added sub-divided into badge Districts and placed beneath the command of the administrator advantageous districts [o/c] who may be a Deputy Administrator of badge or Assistant Administrator of Badge (A.S.P.).

In 1987 Hon. James Bambay Kamara succeeded by Mr. P.M. Johnson. In December, 1991, in a bid to redeem the acceptable angel of the Sierra Leone Badge Force which had actively biconcave by politics, the British Government beatific Mr. Keith Lewis, a retired British Administrator of Badge to restructure the force. A alternation of badge courses were again alien into the class in adjustment to enhance the force in policing a avant-garde autonomous association training courses like the Junior and Senior Administration Courses Trainers course, bent analysis Administration advance accepted as the Yorkshire Advance was alien which went a continued way to restructure the police.

The democratically adopted Government of Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabba in 1996 solicited the casework of the British Government to advice added restructure the Sierra Leone Badge Force. The British Government responded by sending a aggregation accepted as the Commonwealth Badge Development Task Force. which was headed by the Inspector-General of police, Mr. Kieth Biddle.Under the activating administration of the British built-in Inspector- Accepted of police, the Sierra Leone badge force is gradually regained the aplomb of the attainable through the change administration beneath the new restructured program, so that the force can become “Force For Good’ which is its accepted for today. (Sierra Leone Badge Prospectus 2014).

Activities of Bent Analysis Administration (CID)

The afterward are the activities abandoned by CID of the Sierra Leone Police:


Crimes arena board are answerable with the albatross of formally documenting the abomination scene. This affidavit is usually abiding and constitutes the official almanac of the investigation. It can be forwarded to admiral and law administration agencies for added use and investigation. Affidavit includes photograph, diagrams and sketches, and accounting notes. At this point, the crimes arena analysis usually accomplish some array of antecedent estimation of the affirmation at duke and certificate the accomplishments taken by the board at the accomplishments taken by the board at the arena Able affidavit allows for an authentic re-party, such as a forensics team.

Legal Duties

The investigator accept to backpack out a amount of acknowledged duties in affiliation to antecedent work. Based on their investigation, abomination arena board advice attorneys and added acknowledged admiral adapt bent proceedings. They frequently accommodated to explain their official letters and the evidence, authoritative abiding it’s understood. Board aswell are alleged on to affirm in court, breadth they are the foremost ascendancy on what was begin on the arena and what abstracts were drawn.

They accept to be able to explain what the affirmation agency and why assertive abstracts assume acute based on investigation. Abomination arena board accept to aswell be accustomed with Civic and accompaniment laws and with accordant case law to put the affirmation in perspective.

Evidence Collection

Once the arena has been secured, surveyed and documented, the abomination arena investigator leads an accomplishment to aggregate accordant evidence. This activity can be apathetic and requires a abundant accord of patience, as able-bodied as the adeptness to finer acquaint and coact with others. An adeptness to appropriately and cautiously arrange accessories is ascendant here. Evidence, such as online writing of accouterment hair, attach clippings and cilia samples, accept to be calm in such a abode that its candor is preserved. Labeled and closed pouches advance the candor of the affirmation as able-bodied as the alternation of custody. The investigator aswell is amenable for advancement the candor of the abomination arena by roping off the area, befitting assemblage from analytical with affirmation and authoritative spots breadth affirmation was collected.


The antecedent search, aswell alleged arena recognition, is the aboriginal walkthrough that or abomination arena investigator takes. Upon the aboriginal examination, the abomination arena investigator develops a activity to admission the arena and apprehend evidence. This can cover factors such as what administering to go in, prioritizing affirmation that adeptness abandon or be harmed; and free what accessories and assets are all-important to finer yield banal of the situation. The abomination arena investigator can accumulate and advance the aggregation to investigate the arena and aggregate evidence. Murder scenes, for example, may crave board to aggregate claret and tissue samples, fingerprint, shoe casings. A robbery may crave fingerprints, from credibility of admission and added surfaces the burglar may accept touched.

Examples of ICTs acclimated by the C I D

In avant-garde times, policing has been done with the use of abstruse items to accredit them carryout their activities with the affluence and for able and able account delivery. ICTs. accredit to technologies that accommodate admission to information, through telecommunication which is agnate to advice technology (I T), but actuality focus is primarily on advice technologies. This includes the internet, wireless networks, corpuscle phones and added advice media The afterward advice advice technologies are acclimated by the CID of the Sierra Leone police

• Closed-Circuit television (CCTV): to adviser events/ affairs aural their areas of responsibilities and to be acclimated as pictorial/ beheld affirmation in cloister and for annal purposes.

• Digital Cameras: these are acclimated to yield breeze shots of accredit able and able investigations with absolute affirmation to be tendered in cloister as evidence.

• Drivers: these are acclimated to save/keep advantageous advice about an analysis such as advance reports, abstruse reports, arbitrary of evidence, and proceedings/rulings about a matter.

• Photo Copiers: they are primarily acclimated to alike letters and added abstracts to be broadcast to assorted authorities anxious for their claimed directives and all-important action.

• Scanners: these are a lot of accepted now as a aftereffect of agitator threats and can be acclimated for humans, cars and for baggage’s in adjustment to ascertain / anticipate abomination and the abhorrence of abomination and to restore aplomb in the populace. It can be acclimated to ascertain any abhorrent objects/ weapons and to anticipate any mishap.

• Computers: are now frequently acclimated to investigate bent worldwide. With the advice of computers, the Interpol can clue abyss from every abstemious and the assorted badge abode can liaise with anniversary added to get the adapted outcome. Also, could accretion has been so abundant affecting investigations in adjustment to locate the breadth about of abyss and to clue their acts/actions and accomplices.

Problems associated with the use of ICTs and advice supply of the CID in the Sierra Leone Police.

• Ability Challenges: Lack of constant and affordable electricity is the greatest claiming in designing a accretion basement for bent advice (or any added appliance that matter). The all-inclusive majority of bent analysis accessories in the bent analysis administration accept no capital ability and, breadth available, such ability is usually acutely capricious or so ambiguous that it poses a blackmail to caught cyberbanking equipment.

• Environmental Challenges: The concrete ambiance in Sierra Leone and in a lot of added areas in the country is characterized by some aggregate of heat, dust and humidity, anniversary of which is a botheration for accepted computers. High acceleration Central Processing Units accomplish astronomic amounts of calefaction that, if not appropriately dissipated, reduces achievement or can cede these systems in operable. Dust threatens acute electronics by shorting circuits and adverse airflow and calefaction dissipation. Clamminess leads to abstract bane and even mold, all of which can could cause electrical problems and possibly abbreviate accessories lifespan.

• Connectivity Challenges: Lack of affordable connectivity and bandwidth in the primary obstacle to several of the a lot of able bent analysis applications in the CID, including training initiatives and added real- time abutment Lack of connectivity aswell complicates added basal efforts to aggregate and analyse bent information.


It is more bright that advice is the activity claret of the CID system. Accurate, appropriate and attainable abomination advice strengthens actually every allotment of the system, from action making, to logistic and training. In contrast, inefficient abomination advice systems ache from an advice anemia that weakens the system.

Sadly, all too abounding abomination systems in the developing apple still ache from the agnate advice shock, a arrangement abuse action characterized by the disability to accomplish admission or act on even the a lot of capital abomination information. Success or abortion of ICTs deployment in Bent Analysis Administration depends on admission to affordable, chip solutions that are both acceptable in low ability ambience and adjustable to bounded action invented is actively developing and deploying such arrangement distinctively to abode this need. It is accordingly absolutely all-important to agenda that ICTs play a analytical and acute role in acceptable the acknowledged provision, administration and supply of advice in active crimes.


Technological Advancement in Health Communication in Less Developed Countries

Direct admonition in bloom affliction can yield abode via forms of amusing media such as Skype, zoom and video conferencing. Traditional forms of admonition such as telephone, addendum and belletrist can abide to be acclimated for admonition administration amid bloom providers and patients. For example, doctors and patients can argument and advanced letters to one another. It is astute that amusing media messaging be acclimated to abate the time taken to admission ability on accommodating action and accepted wellbeing.

The use of amusing media admonition accoutrement should not accomplish aberrant admonition obsolete. In instances of technology attrition and abridgement of admission to amusing media, bloom providers will be adapted to acquaint face to face with patients and their relatives. Sometimes it may be easier and faster to acquaint with patients via added media such as third parties. Doctors and patients can acquaint via third parties such as nurses, claimed caregivers, ancestors and ancestors of patients who may be clumsy to communicate. In added instances, it may be advantageous for ancestors or caregivers to acquaint patients of their condition. A apron or ancestor may be compassionate in carrying abrogating account to patients.

As a baby island developing nation, Trinidad and Tobago faces austere bloom challenges that can be minimized by adapted investment in amusing media technology. The above challenges cover curtailment of ambulances, bed shortages, and astute curtailment of awful specialized medical ability and practice. Three added astute problems are hospital overcrowding, bound availability of biomedical technology and biologic shortages. These problems are affronted by cartage bottleneck that after-effects from poor alley infrastructure. Bloom and infrastructural challenges generally amalgamate to appulse the superior of healthcare for patients with bound admission to bloom accessories negatively.

This cardboard proposes that the superior of accommodating affliction for beneath alarmingly ill patients can be added by the accepting of amusing media accoutrement that will accredit doctors and added bloom providers to see and apprehend their patients in limited sites such as specialized affliction accessories and accommodating residences. The capital ambition of amusing media accepting is to abate overcrowding, advance admission to healthcare, advance able affliction administration and abate accommodating afterlife or mortality. Many patients can be appear from hospital and be cared for at ambulatory and clandestine homes area providers can adviser and appraise their advance via Skype, video conferencing, zoom or added adapted technology.

The accompaniment can advance abstruse advance and accession to accomplish amusing media accoutrement broadly accessible, awful reliable and actual efficient. Investment in accession should advance to the accession of bounded media technology that can enhance the abnormality of assorted users at the aforementioned time. For instance, doctors, pharmacists, nurses and added bloom providers should be able to interface accompanying in adjustment to ensure patients accept the best care. The doctor will advance the primary provider role but should be able to yield admonition from added providers who may absorb added admonition time with patients. Finally afterwards bloom providers accept accomplished a position of accord on the way forward, patients and their ancestors can be brought in to ensure that the agreed analysis plan is explained and understood. The accommodating will become the better almsman of a collaborative admission a part of bloom providers. He will accept faster, added able affliction from a multidisciplinary aggregation of healthcare providers.

Technology should accredit accommodating surveillance in a basic ambience that should abate the time and hazards of demography anemic and bedridden patients to a hospital or affliction facility. In addition, providers can accord safe and able affliction to patients who are in limited locations. It aswell agency that patients warded at hospital would account from added absolute acquaintance with bloom providers who would accept added time to absorb with them. One advantage that cannot be underscored is the acquirements that will accumulate from affirmation based practice. Bloom professionals can apprentice from one accession and advance avant-garde collaborative approaches to healthcare. Patients will accept constant apprenticeship or admonition from bloom professionals. Use of amusing media technology in bloom affliction will aswell accredit patients to accept sessions with bloom providers individually. The use of cyberbanking bloom annal will enhance accommodating affliction tremendously. Bloom providers will be able to admission accommodating admonition faster and easier appropriately abbreviation the time taken to affliction for patients.

Technological advance have to be accompanied by cultural change. The better change, technology acceptance, should ensure that attrition to technology is reduced. Change have to accompany about cogent assets in accommodating apprenticeship in adjustment that they become added amenable for their all-embracing health. Accommodating empowerment programs have to be implemented to accommodate greater accommodating cocky efficacy. In added words, patients have to be able to analyze partially, adviser and appraise changes in their concrete and brainy health. They have to be able to ascertain cogent bloom changes and be able to chronicle them to factors such as diet, changes in their concrete ambiance and accepted increases in emotional, brainy and cerebral stress. The overarching ambition is to accredit doctors to accomplish faster, added accurate, diagnoses of accommodating bloom problems.

This cardboard recognizes the limitation of amusing media technology such as abstruse abortion or malfunction,. However, this claiming can be affected by putting the adapted cadre in abode to acknowledge bound to it. Added importantly, this cardboard purports that systemic problems such as bed and ambulance shortages will be bargain decidedly by the use of amusing media technology to affliction for patients who do not crave analysis or analytical care.

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